The localization of plastic deformation is discussed as "stationary discontinuity" characterized by a vanishing velocity of an acceleration wave derived using the author's proposed theory of ultrasonic wave velocities propagating in plastically deformed solids. To formulate the proposed theory, the elasto-plastic coupling effect was introduced to consider the elastic stiffness degradation due to the plastic deformation. The driving force of the deformation localization is caused by the yield vertex effect, which introduces a pronounced softening of the shear modulus, and geometrical softening due to double slip caused by lattice rotations. In the present paper, it is examined theoretically and experimentally that the diagonal terms of the introduced elasto-plastic coupling tensor represent a slight hardening followed by a pronounced softening of the elastic modulus induced by the point defect development caused by cross slides among dislocations at multiple slip stages similar to the yield vertex effects. The off-diagonal terms represent geometrical softening induced by lattice rotations such as texture evolution. Then, based on the coincidence of the onset strains between localization and acceleration waves of vanishing velocity, the diagrams of diffuse necking, localized necking and forming limit are analyzed by applying the proposed acoustic tensor, which is based on the generalized Christoffel tensor derived by the author, and solving cut off conditions of the quasi-longitudinal wave to determine the onset strains of deformation localization and localization modes. As a result, diagrams of diffuse necking, localized necking and forming limit were obtained. Moreover, the localization modes were determined and distinguished as the SH-mode, SV-mode, tearing mode and splitting mode. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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