Analytic analysis of the force sharing among synergistic muscles in one- and two-degree-of-freedom models

  • Binding P
  • Jinha A
  • Herzog W
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Mathematical optimization of specific cost functions has been used in theoretical models to calculate individual muscle forces. Measurements of individual muscle forces and force sharing among individual muscles show an intensity-dependent, non-linear behavior. It has been demonstrated that the force sharing between the cat Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus shows distinct loops that change orientation systematically depending on the intensity of the movement. The purpose of this study was to prove whether or not static, non-linear optimization could inherently predict force sharing loops between agonistic muscles. Using joint moment data from a step cycle of cat locomotion, the forces in three cat ankle plantar flexors (Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus) were calculated using two popular optimization algorithms and two musculo-skeletal models. The two musculo-skeletal models included a one-degree-of-freedom model that considered the ankle joint exclusively and a two-degree-of-freedom model that included the ankle and the knee joint. The main conclusion of this study was that solutions of the one- degree-of-freedom model do not guarantee force-sharing loops, but the two- degree-of-freedom model predicts force-sharing loops independent of the specific values of the input parameters for the muscles and the musculo- skeletal geometry. The predicted force-sharing loops were found to be a direct result of the loops formed by the knee and ankle moments in a moment- moment graph. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Ankle plantar flexion
  • Cat
  • Force sharing
  • Knee flexion
  • Muscle force
  • Optimization

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  • Paul Binding

  • Azim Jinha

  • Walter Herzog

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