Antimicrobial resistance has been a challenge in all countries. The aim of this study is to ascertain the risk factors that predispose patients to infections with extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients who were treated in the secondary care hospital due to infections in 2009 and their isolates were evaluated retrospectively. In total, 174 patients and their 189 isolates, which contained 36 ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, 112 non-ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, and 41 gram-positive bacteria were evaluated retrospectively. Hospitalisation in the previous 3 months, comorbidity, and usage of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the previous 3 months were determined to be the risk factors associated with infections by the ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria. Hospitalisation was found to be a risk factor for infection with MRSA. Hospitalisation and underlying conditions increase the colonisation with resistant bacteria and resistance rates in the patients, hospitals and communities. An infection control programme should be contemplated not only for hospitals, but also for the greater community.
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