Previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke enhances lipid peroxidation. This study examined the effect of daily consumption of a tomato-based juice supplemented with vitamin C (600 mg), vitamin E (400 IU, or 400 mg), and beta-carotene (30 mg) on various indexes of lipid peroxidation (breath pentane excretion and susceptibility of LDL to copper-mediated oxidation) in smokers. In addition, plasma lycopene and vitamin concentrations and total peroxyl radical trapping potential, a measure of antioxidant defenses, were assessed. Relative to the placebo juice, the vitamin-supplemented juice resulted in a significant decrease in breath-pentane excretion as well as a significant improvement in the resistance of LDL to oxidation. The lag phase of conjugated diene formation lengthened and the propagation rate decreased, indicating a decreased susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification. Increased concentrations of plasma vitamin C, beta-carotene, and lycopene were found to be significantly correlated with the conjugated diene lag phase and rate of formation. Vitamin E was highly correlated with beta-carotene. Plasma total peroxyl radical trapping potential values did not change in response to supplementation. This study thus indicates that an antioxidant-supplemented drink can reduce lipid peroxidation and susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in smokers and may ameliorate the oxidative stress of cigarette smoke.
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