Background: Infection and inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis. During infection and inflammation, HDL decreases and there are changes in the levels of several HDL-associated proteins. To identify changes in the protein composition of HDL during infection and inflammation, a proteomic approach was utilized. Methods and results: Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found the expected increases in apolipoprotein (apo) SAA and apo E, as well as a decrease in apo A-I on HDL isolated from mice injected with endotoxin. We identified apo A-IV and apo A-V as positive acute-phase proteins in mouse HDL. We also found an increase in hepatic mRNA levels of apo A-IV and apo A-V after injection of endotoxin. Interleukin-6 increased apo A-IV and apo A-V mRNA levels in Hep3B cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that the protein levels of apo A-II in acute-phase HDL and the hepatic mRNA levels of apo A-II were decreased. Conclusions: Apo A-IV and A-V are positive acute-phase proteins that increase in the serum during inflammation while apo A-II is a negative acute-phase protein in mice. Similar to other positive and negative acute-phase proteins, changes in hepatic production account for the changes in serum levels. However, the changes in apo A-IV and apo A-V, two apolipoproteins whose activities are not fully understood, may serve functions other than regulating lipid metabolism during the acute-phase response (APR). Coupled with the other changes in HDL proteins that occur, these changes are likely to alter the functional properties of HDL perhaps increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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