The quantification of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures and particle dynamics is crucial for unveiling complex interactions in turbulent flows. This review summarizes recent advances in volumetric particle detection and 3D flow velocimetry involving holography. We introduce the fundamental principle of holography and discuss the debilitating depth-of-focus problem, along with methods that have been implemented to circumvent it. The focus of this review is on recent advances in the development of in-line digital holography in general, and digital holographic microscopy in particular. A mathematical background for the numerical reconstruction of digital holograms is followed by a summary of recently introduced 3D particle tracking and velocity measurement techniques. The review concludes with sample applications, including 3D velocity measurements that fully resolve the flow in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer, the diffusion of oil droplets in high–Reynolds number turbulence, and predator-prey interactions among swimming microorganisms in dense suspensions, as well as oceanic and atmospheric field experiments.
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