The plant hormone auxin regulates plant physiology by modulating the interaction of transcription factors with auxin response elements (AuxREs) of the affected genes. A transcription factor, Auxin Response Factor 1 (ARF1), that binds to the sequence TGTCTC in AuxREs was cloned from Arabidopsis by using a yeast one-hybrid system. ARF1 has an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain related to the carboxyl terminus of the maize transactivator Viviparous-1. Sequence requirements for ARF1 binding in vitro are identical to those that confer auxin responsiveness in vivo. The carboxyl terminus of ARF1 contains two motifs found in the Aux/IAA class of proteins and appears to mediate protein-protein interactions.
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