This paper presents various arguments between those who claim that preservation of rain forests should be inviolate and others who advocate their conservation through careful sustainable use. Based on a previous workshop on 'preservation versus conservation', the author thinks that a proactive stance must be taken in which development agencies would act as the players. Land use needs to be planned, with some areas of forest protected, others managed sustainably for timber production and then, within the same landscapes, plantations and agriculture are also practiced. Biodiversity should be maintained at the landscape level and there should be a local and national sustainable use and stewardship of the forest. Different parts of the landscape mosaic should maximize different goods and services. Income from some parts must contribute to the overall scene, including the protection forests, for these too require management. A new discipline of conservation forestry is also needed to manage these cultural landscapes.
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