The rate of transition from one stage to another during the course of HIV infection is characterized by changes in the cytokine network balance. The alterations in the cytokine network balance during HIV infection depend on the individual profile of cytokine production predetermined by the functioning of the genes encoding the immunomodulators. The purpose of this research is to study the distribution in the frequency of allelic variants of the promoter regions of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory (T-330G IL2 and G-308A TNFA) and anti-inflammatory (C-590T IL4 and C-597A IL10) cytokines among healthy individuals of European origin and in HIV-infected patients with various rates of HIV progression (fast and slow). Four polymorphic loci of the promoter regions were analyzed in 127 HIV-infected patients and 52 healthy individuals using the polymerase chain reaction - restriction light fragment polymorphism (PCR-RLFP) methodology. We have obtained data indicating an increased allelic content of genotypes T/T IL2 (OR = 1.67), G/A TNFA (OR = 4.21), T/T IL4 (OR = 3.43), C/A IL10 (OR = 1.34) in HIV-infected patients as compared to healthy individuals. The correlation between the genotypes and allelic combinations of the investigated cytokines, and the rate of the infection progression in AIDS has been investigated. The association of T/G IL2, G/A TNFA, T/T IL4, A/A IL10 allelic variants of the immunomodulator genes with a fast rate of HIV infection has been established.
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