Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB), regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black-hat hackers and conclude that automation is starting to take place. To demonstrate the feasibility of our predictions and prove that many two-factor authentication schemes can be bypassed, we developed three browser rootkits which perform the automated attack on the client's computer. Also, in some banks attempt to be regarded as user-friendly, security has been downgraded, making them vulnerable to exploitation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
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