{A}ttosecond {C}ontrol and {M}easurement: {L}ightwave {E}lectronics

  • Goulielmakis E
  • Yakovlev V
  • Cavalieri A
 et al. 
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Electrons emit light, carry electric current, and bind atoms together to form molecules. {I}nsight into and control of their atomic-scale motion are the key to understanding the functioning of biological systems, developing efficient sources of x-ray light, and speeding up electronics. {C}apturing and steering this electron motion require attosecond resolution and control, respectively (1 attosecond = 10-18 seconds). {A} recent revolution in technology has afforded these capabilities: {C}ontrolled light waves can steer electrons inside and around atoms, marking the birth of lightwave electronics. {I}solated attosecond pulses, well reproduced and fully characterized, demonstrate the power of the new technology. {C}ontrolled few-cycle light waves and synchronized attosecond pulses constitute its key tools. {W}e review the current state of lightwave electronics and highlight some future directions.

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  • E Goulielmakis

  • V S Yakovlev

  • A L Cavalieri

  • M Uiberacker

  • V Pervak

  • A Apolonski

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