The present manuscript considers visual, auditory, tactile, chemosensory, and physiologic repellents currently available for use in the United States. Discussion of tactile, chemosensory, and physiologic repellents is emphasized for three reasons. First, these products are preferred by users. Second, application of these substances is regulated by state and federal agencies. Third, only four active ingredients are legally available at the present time. This lack reflects difficulties in obtaining regulatory approval and limited market size.
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