Background noise studies have been extended from air condenser microphones to piezoresistive, electret condenser, and ceramic microphones. Theoretical models of the respective noise sources within each microphone are developed and are used to derive analytical expressions for the noise power spectral density for each type. Several additional noise sources for the piezoresistive and electret microphones, beyond what had previously been considered, were applied to the models and were found to contribute significantly to the total noise power spectral density. Experimental background noise measurements were taken using an upgraded acoustic isolation vessel and data acquisition system, and the results were compared to the theoretically obtained expressions. The models were found to yield power spectral densities consistent with the experimental results. The measurements reveal that the 1/f noise coefficient is strongly correlated with the diaphragm damping resistance, irrespective of the detection technology, i.e., air condenser, piezoresistive, etc. This conclusion has profound implications upon the expected 1/f noise component of micromachined (MEMS) microphones.
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