Background subtraction algorithms define the background as parts of a scene that are at rest. Traditionally, these algorithms assume a stationary camera, and identify moving objects by detecting areas in a video that change over time. In this paper, we extend the concept of `subtracting' areas at rest to apply to video captured from a freely moving camera. We do not assume that the background is well-approximated by a plane or that the camera center remains stationary during motion. The method operates entirely using 2D image measurements without requiring an explicit 3D reconstruction of the scene. A sparse model of background is built by robustly estimating a compact trajectory basis from trajectories of salient features across the video, and the background is `subtracted' by removing trajectories that lie within the space spanned by the basis. Foreground and background appearance models are then built, and an optimal pixel-wise foreground/background labeling is obtained by efficiently maximizing a posterior function.
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