Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the identification and validation of novel biomarkers as well as refinements in the use of serum creatinine as a marker of kidney function. These advances have taken advantage of laboratory investigations, which have identified these novel molecules that serve important biological functions in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). As we advance and validate these markers for clinical studies in AKI, we recognize that they serve not only to improve our understanding of AKI, but they could also serve as potential targets for the treatment of AKI. This review will underscore the biological basis of specific biomarkers that will contribute to the advancement in the treatment and outcomes of AKI.
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