Thirty-four veterans of a residential rehabilitation program for homelessness and substance abuse participated on a community-based softball team. Compared to nonparticipants, participants stayed in treatment longer and were more likely to complete all aspects of the program (inpatient and outpatient). They also were more likely to be abstinent from drugs/alcohol, employed, and housed 3 months postdischarge. Participation appeared to enhance outcomes by providing in vivo opportunities for practicing coping skills and developing supportive relationships. A softball program may be a viable adjunct treatment in which formally taught cognitive-behavioral skills can be applied in a natural, but semistructured setting. © 1993.
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