Analysis of genome-wide microarray data requires the estimation of a large number of genetic parameters for individual genes and their interaction expression patterns under multiple biological conditions. The sources of microarray error variability comprises various biological and experimental factors, such as biological and individual replication, sample preparation, hybridization and image processing. Moreover, the same gene often shows quite heterogeneous error variability under different biological and experimental conditions, which must be estimated separately for evaluating the statistical significance of differential expression patterns. Widely used linear modeling approaches are limited because they do not allow simultaneous modeling and inference on the large number of these genetic parameters and heterogeneous error components on different genes, different biological and experimental conditions, and varying intensity ranges in microarray data.
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