Major depressive disorder significantly impacts the developmental trajectory of youth as well as adults, and cognitive vulnerability models of depression have contributed to our understanding of the onset, maintenance, and recurrence of depression. To date, the bulk of research has focused on three prominent theories: (a) Beck's cognitive model of depression, (b) hopelessness theory of depression, and (c) response styles theory. Although these etiological models have provided a wealth of information about how and why depression arises, less is known about the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie these cognitive vulnerability factors. The article provides an overview of neural correlates for critical, but selective, cognitive vulnerability factors implicated in depression in youth and adults. Moreover, recommendations are provided for future research as it relates to etiology and treatment. © 2013 American Psychological Association.
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