Neonates have a higher perioperative mortality risk largely due to the degree of prior illness of the infants, the complexity of their surgeries, and infant physiology. It is important to consider contributing anesthetic factors during the perioperative period that may affect cerebral perfusion and neurocognitive outcome, such as alterations in hemodynamics and ventilation. Limitations of blood pressure as a marker for cerebral perfusion are discussed, as well as the effect of hypocapnia on the brain.
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