With failure rates of new information technology (IT) systems approaching 50% by some estimates, it is critical to understand more about the processes contributing to success and failure of these initiatives. Research in the IT field focuses on system usage as the primary outcome of interest. This article suggests that system designers and organizational researchers must also consider unintended reactions of users to such systems. We develop a process model based on theories related to organizational sensemaking and socialization to help understand employee reactions to IT systems. Recommendations for future research and system design are provided. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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