P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a mucin on leukocytes that binds to selectins. P-selectin binds to an N-terminal region of PSGL-1 that requires sulfation of at least one of three clustered tyrosines (TyrSO(3)) and an adjacent core-2-based O-glycan expressing sialyl Lewis x (C2-O-sLe(x)). We synthesized glycosulfopeptides (GSPs) modeled after this region of PSGL-1 to explore the roles of individual TyrSO(3) residues, the placement of C2-O-sLe(x) relative to TyrSO(3), the relative contributions of fucose and sialic acid on C2-O-sLe(x), and the function of the peptide sequence for binding to P-selectin. Binding of GSPs to P-selectin was measured by affinity chromatography and equilibrium gel filtration. 2-GSP-6, which has C2-O-sLe(x) at Thr-57 and TyrSO(3) at residues 46, 48, and 51, bound to P-selectin with high affinity (K(d) approximately 650 nm), whereas an isomeric trisulfated GSP containing C2-O-sLe(x) at Thr-44 bound much less well. Non-sulfated glycopeptide (2-GP-6) containing C2-O-sLe(x) at Thr-57 bound to P-selectin with approximately 40-fold lower affinity (K(d) approximately 25 microm). Proteolysis of 2-GP-6 abolished detectable binding of the residual C2-O-sLe(x)-Thr to P-selectin, demonstrating that the peptide backbone contributes to binding. Monosulfated and disulfated GSPs bound significantly better than non-sulfated 2-GP-6, but sulfation of Tyr-48 enhanced affinity (K(d) approximately 6 microm) more than sulfation of Tyr-46 or Tyr-51. 2-GSP-6 lacking sialic acid bound to P-selectin at approximately 10% that of the level of the parent 2-GSP-6, whereas 2-GSP-6 lacking fucose did not detectably bind; thus, fucose contributes more than sialic acid to binding. Reducing NaCl from 150 to 50 mm markedly enhanced binding of 2-GSP-6 to P-selectin (K(d) approximately 75 nm), demonstrating the charge dependence of the interaction. These results reveal a stereospecific interaction of P-selectin with PSGL-1 that includes distinct contributions of each of the three TyrSO(3) residues, adjacent peptide determinants, and fucose/sialic acid on an optimally positioned core-2 O-glycan.
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