Biostimulation and bioaugmentation are commonly employed as technologies to remediate numerous environmental problems. In the last few decades, both technologies have been used to treat polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This paper presents a brief survey of some bioremediation aspects with particular reference to phenanthrene removal from soil, since this compound is the main model substrate for studies of carcinogenic PAHs. In addition, some cases of studies related are mentioned, emphasising the importance of the pollutant, oxygen concentration and type of microorganisms. The use of plant associated microorganisms for bioaugmentation is also described, emphasising the selection of suitable bacteria or communities obtained from plant rhizosphere, in order to improve phenanthrene bioremediation in soil. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
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