Bispecific monoclonal antibodies have drawn considerable attention from the research community due to their unique structure against two different antigens. The two-arm structure of bsMAb allows researchers to place a therapeutic agent on one arm while allowing the other to specifically target the disease site. The therapeutic agent can be a drug, toxin, enzyme, DNA, radionuclide, etc. Furthermore, bsMAb may redirect the cytotoxicity of immune effector cells towards the diseased cells or induce a systemic immune response against the target. BsMAb holds great promise for numerous therapeutic needs in the light of: (1) recent breakthroughs in recombinant DNA technology, (2) the increased number of identified disease targets as the result of the completion of human genomic map project, and (3) a better understanding of the mechanism of human immune system. This review focuses on therapeutic applications and production of bsMAb while providing the up-to-date clinical trial information. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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