Disorders in calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be associated with poor outcomes including a higher rate of CKD progression and increased death risk. Although these abnormalities have been examined extensively in patients with CKD stage 5 who are receiving chronic maintenance dialysis, they have not been studied to the same extent at earlier stages of CKD, in spite of the much larger numbers of patients in the early CKD population. We summarize the available literature on outcomes associated with bone and mineral disorders in patients with CKD not yet receiving maintenance dialysis. We have reviewed novel data linking fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) to phosphorus and vitamin D homeostasis. More rapid CKD progression is linked to hyperphosphatemia and its associated hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency. Hence, hyperphosphatemia may play a central role in the diverse disorders characterizing CKD. We provide a brief overview of the available treatment recommendations for bone and mineral disorders, with an emphasis on areas needing further research.
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