Breakage of TiO2 agglomerates in electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersions

  • Mandzy N
  • Grulke E
  • Druffel T
  • 91

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Abstract

Nanoparticles of metal oxides have applications as additives in thin nanocomposite films. For optical applications that include transparent films and coatings, nanoparticles should be uniformly dispersed in the polymer film. Most commercially available nanoparticles are large agglomerates about 1 ??m in maximum dimensions composed of primary particles with sizes ranging from 5 to 50 nm. The large agglomerates scatter light and are not directly suitable for optical systems. Ultrasonication of liquid suspensions was used to prepare stable dispersions from commercial titania nanopowders. The mean diameter of sonicated titania nanopowders was correlated inversely to the specific energy. After a rapid initial size reduction, continued ultrasonication lead to insignificant reduction and even reagglomeration of the particles. Both erosion and fracture mechanisms were observed. None of the commercial nanopowders were successfully broken to their primary particle sizes. Reagglomeration of the dispersion could be prevented by electrostatic stabilization with nitric acid or ammonium hydroxide when its zeta potential value was less than - 30 mV or greater than + 30 mV. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Aqueous dispersion
  • Nanopowders
  • TiO2
  • Ultrasonication
  • Zeta potential

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Authors

  • N. Mandzy

  • E. Grulke

  • T. Druffel

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