See, stats, and : https : / / www . researchgate . net / publication / 51866359 Bullying relationship, self-esteem oral -related Article DOI : 10 . 1179 / 14653121141641 : PubMed CITATIONS 31 READS 272 4 , including : Jadbinder King ' s 43 SEE Padhraig Queen , University 105 SEE Jonathon King ' s 337 , 937 SEE All - text , letting . Available : Jonathon Retrieved : 16 SCIENTIFIC SECTION Objectives : To measure the self - reported frequency and severity of bullying amongst patients referred for orthodontic treatment and to investigate whether there is a relationship between levels of self - reported bullying , malocclusion and need for orthodontic treatment and an individual ' s self - esteem and oral health - related quality of life (OHRQoL) . Design and setting : Cross - sectional study of an adolescent group referred for orthodontic assessment at three UK hospitals . Subjects and methods : Three hundred and thirty - six participants aged between 10 and 14 years were recruited . Validated questionnaires were used to measure the self - reported frequency and severity of bullying , self - esteem and OHRQoL . Orthodontic treatment need was assessed using IOTN . Results : The prevalence of bullying was 12 . 8% . Being bullied was significantly associated with Class II Division 1 incisor relationship (P50 . 041) , increased overbite (P50 . 023) , increased overjet (P50 . 001) and a high need for orthodontic treatment assessed using AC IOTN (P50 . 014) . Bullied participants also reported lower levels of social competence (P , 0 . 001) , athletic competence (P , 0 . 001) , physical appearance related self - esteem (P , 0 . 001) and general self - esteem (P , 0 . 001) . Higher levels of oral symptoms (P50 . 032) , functional limitations (P , 0 . 001) , emotional (P , 0 . 001) and social impact (P , 0 . 001) from their oral condition , resulting in a negative impact on overall OHRQoL (P , 0 . 001) , were also reported . Conclusions : Significant relationships exist between bullying and certain occlusal traits , self - esteem and OHRQoL .
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