Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) harbour self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms to sustain liver CSCs remain largely unknown. In this study, based on analysis of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) transcriptome datasets and our experimental data, we find that C8orf4 is weakly expressed in HCC tumours and liver CSCs. C8orf4 attenuates the self-renewal capacity of liver CSCs and tumour propagation. We show that NOTCH2 is activated in liver CSCs. C8orf4 is located in the cytoplasm of HCC tumour cells and associates with the NOTCH2 intracellular domain, which impedes the nuclear translocation of N2ICD. C8orf4 deletion causes the nuclear translocation of N2ICD that triggers the NOTCH2 signalling, which sustains the stemness of liver CSCs. Finally, NOTCH2 activation levels are consistent with clinical severity and prognosis of HCC patients. Altogether, C8orf4 negatively regulates the self-renewal of liver CSCs via suppression of NOTCH2 signalling.
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