The Fresnel theory with its numerous extensions is a well established method for the calculation of grazing incidence x-ray reflectivities for single surfaces and (multi-)layered systems. However, lateral surface correlations--which are always present e.g. for polycrystalline thin films--cannot be included in these calculations. Furthermore the application of the Fresnel theory is restricted to investigations of specular reflectivities, i.e. off specular reflectivities cannot be calculated. These limitations can be overcome by the application of the distortedwave Born approximation (DWBA). Simulations of grazing incidence reflection mode EXAFS spectra will be presented and the results obtained using different calculation procedures such as the Fresnel theory, the Nevot-Croce model and the DWBA are compared. Furthermore, we will also prove the existence of a fine structure similar to EXAFS which can be observed in the region of diffusely scattered intensities. We will show that this new EXAFS technique is surface sensitive even for grazing angles above the critical angle of total reflection.
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