Carbon allotropes such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, have been incorporated in electrochemical biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of various analytes. The superior physical and electrical properties like high carrier mobility, ambipolar electric field effect, high surface area, flexibility and their compatibility with microfabrication techniques makes these carbon nanomaterials easy to integrate in field-effect transistor (FET)/chemiresistor type configuration which is suitable for portable and point-of-use/field-deployable sensors. This review covers the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (graphene and CNTs) and their integration into devices using various fabrication methods. Finally, we discuss the recent reports showing different sensing platforms that incorporate biomolecules like enzymes, antibodies and aptamers as recognition elements for fabrication of simple, low cost, compact biosensors that can be used for on-site, rapid environmental monitoring of environmental pollutants like pathogens, heavy metals, pesticides and explosives.
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