Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the effects of the metabolic syndrome on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men

  • Katzmarzyk P
  • Church T
  • Blair S
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a prevalent condition that carries with it an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality in healthy men and in those with the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The sample included 19 223 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who received a clinical evaluation between 1979 and 1995 with mortality follow-up through December 31, 1996. There were 15 466 healthy men (80.5%) and 3757 men with the metabolic syndrome (19.5%). RESULTS: A total of 480 deaths (161 due to CVD) occurred during 196 298 man-years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, year of examination, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and parental CVD, the relative risks (RRs) (95% confidence interval) of all-cause and CVD mortality were 1.29 (1.05-1.57) and 1.89 (1.36-2.60), respectively, for men with the metabolic syndrome compared with healthy men. After the inclusion of CRF, the associations were not significant. The RRs comparing unfit with fit men for all-cause mortality were 2.18 (1.66-2.87) in healthy men and 2.01 (1.38-2.93) in men with the metabolic syndrome, whereas the RRs for CVD mortality for unfit vs fit men were 3.21 (2.03-5.07) in healthy men and 2.25 (1.27-3.97) in men with the metabolic syndrome. A significant dose-response relationship between CRF and mortality was also observed in men with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: In this sample, CRF provided a strong protective effect against all-cause and CVD mortality in healthy men and men with the metabolic syndrome

Author-supplied keywords

  • AGE
  • ASSOCIATION
  • ASSOCIATIONS
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged,80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Body Mass Index
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • Canada
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cause of Death
  • Cohort Studies
  • DIABETES-MELLITUS
  • DISEASE
  • DOSE-RESPONSE
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • FOLLOW-UP
  • HEALTH
  • Health Education
  • Humans
  • MELLITUS
  • MEN
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome X
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Ontario
  • Physical Fitness
  • Prognosis
  • Risk
  • Risk Assessment
  • Smoking
  • Survival Analysis
  • Syndrome
  • Universities
  • adverse effects
  • cardiovascular
  • diabetes
  • diagnosis
  • education
  • metabolic syndrome
  • methods
  • physiology

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Authors

  • P T Katzmarzyk

  • T S Church

  • S N Blair

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