The CO2 emissions in biorefineries, with reference to bioethanol plants from lignocellulosic sources, are analyzed to discuss the possible use of carbon dioxide to produce fuels and chemicals. It is evidenced how this concept should be part of the strategy to introduce renewable energy in the biorefinery chain not only to decrease its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, but also because this approach could offer interesting opportunities to produce high-value-added chemicals. The chapter also briefly comments on a possible general roadmap for the use of CO2 for the production of fuels and chemicals, and finally shortly overviews the state of the art and perspectives in catalysis for the conversion of CO2 to methanol and dimethylether.
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