Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

  • Scheffer M
  • Carpenter S
  • Foley J
 et al. 
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All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

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  • Marten Scheffer

  • Steve Carpenter

  • Jonathan A. Foley

  • Carl Folke

  • Brian Walker

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