Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are strongly associated with patient survival in a wide variety of human cancers. Less is known about tumor-infiltrating CD20(+) B cells, which often colocalize with T cells, sometimes forming organized lymphoid structures. In autoimmunity and organ transplantation, T cells and B cells collaborate to generate potent, unrelenting immune responses that can result in extensive tissue damage and organ rejection. In these settings, B cells enhance T cell responses by producing Abs, stimulatory cytokines, and chemokines, serving as local APCs, and organizing the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures that sustain long-term immunity. Thus, B cells are an important component of immunological circuits associated with persistent, rampant tissue destruction. Engagement of tumor-reactive B cells may be an important condition for generating potent, long-term T cell responses against cancer.
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