Cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation (CAA-I), previously described under various names, is a treatable encephalopathy usually occurring in older adults. Here, three patients are described with histopathologically confirmed CAA-I, and summarised data from the published literature are presented. CAA-I has a characteristic combination of clinical and radiological features. Definite diagnosis requires brain and leptomeningeal biopsy. A favourable response to immunosuppressive therapy is common and treatment without brain biopsy may be considered in selected patients. Diagnostic criteria for CAA-I are proposed.
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