Oxygen evolution by photosystem II (PSII) is activated by chloride and other monovalent anions. In this study, the effects of iodide on oxygen evolution activity were investigated using PSII-enriched membrane fragments from spinach. In the absence of Cl(-), the dependence of oxygen evolution activity on I(-) concentration showed activation followed by inhibition in both intact PSII and NaCl-washed PSII, which lacked the PsbP and PsbQ subunits. Using a substrate inhibition model, the range of values of the Michaelis constant K(M) in intact PSII (0.5-1.5 mM) was smaller than that in NaCl-washed PSII (1.5-5 mM), whereas values of the inhibition constant K(I) in intact PSII (9-17 mM) were larger than those in NaCl-washed PSII (1-4 mM). Studies of I(-) inhibition of Cl(-)-activated oxygen evolution in intact PSII revealed that I(-) was primarily an uncompetitive inhibitor, with uncompetitive constant K(i)' = 37 mM and Cl(-)-competitive constant K(i) > 200 mM. This result indicated that the activating Cl(-) must be bound for inhibition to take place, which is consistent with the substrate inhibition model for I(-) activation. The S(2) state multiline and g = 4.1 EPR signals in NaCl-washed PSII were examined in the presence of 3 and 25 mM NaI, corresponding to I(-)-activated and I(-)-inhibited conditions, respectively. The two S(2) state signals were observed at both I(-) concentrations, indicating that I(-) substitutes for Cl(-) in formation of the signals and that advancement to the S(2) state was not prevented by high I(-) concentrations. A model is presented that incorporates the results of this study, including the action of both chloride and iodide.
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