We review the application of impedance spectroscopy in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells and organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. We emphasize the interpretation of the impedance parameters for determining the internal features of the device, concerning the carrier distribution, materials properties such as the density of states and/or doping of the semiconductors, and the match of energy levels for photoinduced charge generation and separation. Another central task is the determination of recombination mechanisms from the measured resistances, and the factors governing the device performance by combined analysis of resistances as a function of voltage and current-voltage curves.
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