Background: Envenoming by snakebite is an important public health problem in rural tropics. Venomous snake families such as Elapidae and Viperidae frequently produce severe poisoning. Anti-venoms are not available for all venomous snakes of Thailand and there is need for more development in this field. Objective: We characterized the important venomous snakes' distribution of Thailand. Method: Venomous snake species are described in details including their identification, range, and extraterritorial distribution. Result: Eighteen snake species of the family Elapidae are summarized in their characteristics and distribution. There are three species of Naja, one species of Ophiophagus, three species of Bungarus, four species of Calliophis, one species of Sinomicrurus, two species of Laticauda, and four species of subfamily Hydrophiinae. Fifteen snake species of the family Viperidae consisting of one species of subfamily Viperinae and fourteen species of subfamily Crotalinae are also discussed. Conclusion: All these snakes are venomous and their venom is potentially fatal since birth.
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