A checklist to evaluate a report of a nonpharmacological trial (CLEAR NPT) was developed using consensus

  • Boutron I
  • Moher D
  • Tugwell P
 et al. 
  • 87


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 201


    Citations of this article.


Background and Objective: To develop a checklist of items measuring the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing nonpharmacological treatments (NPTs). Study Design and Setting: The Delphi consensus method was used to select and reduce the number of items in the checklist. A total of 154 individuals were invited to participate: epidemiologists and statisticians involved in the field of methodology of RCTs (n = 55), members of the Cochrane Collaboration (n = 41), and clinicians involved in planning NPT clinical trials (n = 58). Participants ranked on a 10-point Likert scale whether an item should be included in the checklist. Results: Fifty-five experts (36%) participated in the survey. They were experienced in systematic reviews (68% were involved in the Cochrane Collaboration) and in planning RCTs (76%). Three rounds of the Delphi method were conducted to achieve consensus. The final checklist contains 10 items and 5 subitems, with items related to the standardization of the intervention, care provider influence, and additional measures to minimize the potential bias from lack of blinding of participants, care providers, and outcome assessors. Conclusions: This tool can be used to critically appraise the medical literature, design NPT studies, and assess the quality of trial reports included in systematic reviews. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Education
  • Meta-analysis
  • Psychotherapy
  • Quality assurance
  • Randomized controlled trials
  • Rehabilitation therapy
  • Surgery

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Isabelle Boutron

  • David Moher

  • Peter Tugwell

  • Bruno Giraudeau

  • Serge Poiraudeau

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free