Chemical Defenses of the Endemic Brazilian Gorgonian Lophogorgia violacea Pallas (Octocorallia, Gorgonacea)

  • Epifanio R
  • Maia L
  • Fenical W
  • 36

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 37

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

The chemical defenses of the Brazilian gorgonian octocoral Lophogorgia violacea Pallas have been investigated using feeding preference experiments performed in situ with an ecologically relevant, natural assemblage of predatory fishes. Feeding experiments incorporating the crude extract of the animal into palatable foods showed that the organic constituents of L. Violacea provide a powerful chemical deterrence toward consumption by generalist fish carnivores. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract and evaluation of the fractions and purified compounds obtained in the same in situ assay revealed that a complex mixture of furanocembranolides was responsible for the overall feeding deterrence observed. The most potent feeding deterrent identified was lophotoxin (1), followed by two previously reported and structurally related compounds, deoxylophotoxin (2), and 13-acetoxy-11 beta ,12 beta -epoxypukalide (3), as well as two new furanocembranolides: 7-acetoxy-8-hydroxylophotoxin (4) and 3-methoxy-8-hydroxylophotoxin (5). Lophotoxin (1), a neurotoxin originally isolated from the Pacific gorgonian L. Rigida, was the most potent feeding deterrent among the furanocembranolides isolated. However, the four other related furanocembranolides (2-5) appear to contribute, in an additive manner, to the overall deterrent effects observed. These results add to earlier studies providing further evidence that compounds of this structural class provide effective chemical defenses against fish predators in both temperate and tropical environments.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Cnidaria
  • Feeding deterrents
  • Furanocembranolides
  • Lophogorgia violacea
  • Marine chemical ecology

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text

Authors

  • Rosângela De A. Epifanio

  • Lenize F. Maia

  • William Fenical

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free