To determine the effect of chemoprophylaxis on the case-fatality rate of malaria, we analyzed all cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in nonimmune persons reported from 1993 to 2004 in Germany. In univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of age, sex, chemoprophylaxis, chemoprophylactic regimen, compliance for chemoprophylactic regimen, exposure prophylaxis, country of infection, and year of reporting on the outcome. Of 3,935 case-patients, 116 (3%) died of malaria. Univariate analysis showed significant associations with death for chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine plus proguanil compared to no chemoprophylaxis. The multivariate model showed that patients who had taken chemoprophylaxis were less likely to die compared to those who had not taken chemoprophylaxis, adjusted for patient age and reporting year. The study demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis significantly reduced fatality rates among nonimmune malaria patients and supports the importance of existing guidelines for malaria prevention.
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