Core symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, although other conditions frequently coexist with ADHD, including developmental disorders (especially motor, language, social communication, and specific learning disabilities) and psychiatric disorders (especially oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, anxiety, and depressive disorders). Symptoms must be present for at least 6 months, are generally observed in children before the age of 7 years, and cause clinically important impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning which must be evident in more than one setting.Formal diagnostic criteria are most applicable to boys aged 6-12 years, and most research data relate to this group. Preschool children, adolescents, and females may present less-typical features, but similar levels of impairment. Prevalence estimates among school children range from 3% to 5%. , improves core symptoms and school performance in children with ADHD when used alone. , and may also reduce symptoms of ADHD., We don't know how effective any treatment for ADHD is in the long term; people with ADHD may require treatment for many years., CAUTION: Atomoxetine may cause rare but serious liver injury. , and may improve symptoms of ADHD compared with placebo, but are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects compared with methylphenidate, dexamfetamine, and atomoxetine. , We don't know whether or are beneficial in the treatment of symptoms of ADHD., We don't know how effective psychological/behavioural treatments alone are compared with each other or with pharmacological treatments, as we found few high-quality studies. The combination of may enhance effectiveness of methylphenidate alone or behavioural treatment alone, but we don't know whether is effective in treatment of ADHD compared with either intervention alone. Long-term outcome for both drug treatment alone and combination treatments is uncertain.We don't know whether in conjunction with teacher involvement is more effective than parent training alone.
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