Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrodes with high work function for organic device compatibility

  • Helander M
  • Wang Z
  • Qiu J
 et al. 
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Abstract

In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [~4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) to the deep energy levels (~6 eV) of the active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of >6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy levels of the active light-emitting materials in state-of-the art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and power efficiency of 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumens per watt at 10,000 candelas per square meter.

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Authors

  • M. G. Helander

  • Z. B. Wang

  • J. Qiu

  • M. T. Greiner

  • D. P. Puzzo

  • Z. W. Liu

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