Chromoendoscopy involves the use of stains or dyes during endoscopy to improve the visualization and characterization of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Its main clinical application is the detection of dysplasia or early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in individuals with pre-malignant conditions or hereditary and environmental factors that predispose them to cancer. The utility of chromoendoscopy has been mostly studied in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, gastric cancer, colorectal polyps, and chronic ulcerative colitis. Although chromoendoscopy has been shown to be feasible and safe, several limitations have prevented its widespread use in endoscopy. Despite this, chromoendoscopy remains a useful adjunct to standard white light endoscopy in the visualization of mucosal lesions, which may potentially improve tissue diagnosis and impact patient care.
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