Cigarette smoking and depression: Tests of causal linkages using a longitudinal birth cohort

  • Boden J
  • Fergusson D
  • Horwood L
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BACKGROUND: Research on the comorbidity between cigarette smoking and major depression has not elucidated the pathways by which smoking is associated with depression.AIMS: To examine the causal relationships between smoking and depression via fixed-effects regression and structural equation modelling.METHOD: Data were gathered on nicotine-dependence symptoms and depressive symptoms in early adulthood using a birth cohort of over 1000 individuals.RESULTS: Adjustment for confounding factors revealed persistent significant (P

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