Critical analysis of the gene1'al goal of citizen participation reveals basic conflicts betU'een participatory democracy and professional expertise. Planners and other 11rban professionals have encountered many problems in attempting to encourage citizen participation in commrmity decision-making. Some of the dilemmas can be resolved by recognizing and adopting a strategy of participation specifically designed to fit the role and resources of the partic11lar organization. Five types of strate- gies are identified: education-therapy, behavioral change, staff supplement, cooptation, and community power.
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