In this review we examine formally the conditions under which vector-borne diseases are likely to change, and the directions of those changes, under various scenarios of climate change. We specify the criteria that must be met in order to conclude that climate change is having an effect on vector-borne diseases. We then take several examples from the literature and show how some of them meet these criteria, while others do not. For those that do not, there are alternative explanations that involve much more plausible drivers of the recorded changes in the diseases concerned.
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