Purpose: The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical outcomes for the different time points of implant placement following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search and a hand search of selected journals were performed to identify clinical studies published in English that reported on outcomes of implants in postextraction sites. Only studies that included 10 or more patients were accepted. For implant success/survival outcomes, only studies with a mean follow-up period of at least 12 months from the time of implant placement were included. The following out- comes were identified: (1) change in peri-implant defect dimension, (2) implant survival and success, and (3) esthetic outcomes. Results and Conclusions: Of 1,107 abstracts and 170 full-text articles con- sidered, 91 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Bone augmentation procedures are effec- tive in promoting bone fill and defect resolution at implants in postextraction sites, and are more successful with immediate (type 1) and early placement (type 2 and type 3) than with late placement (type 4). The majority of studies reported survival rates of over 95%. Similar survival rates were observed for immediate (type 1) and early (type 2) placement. Recession of the facial mucosal margin is common with immediate (type 1) placement. Risk indicators included a thin tissue biotype, a facial malposition of the implant, and a thin or damaged facial bone wall. Early implant placement (type 2 and type 3) is associated with a lower frequency of mucosal recession compared to immediate place- ment (type 1).
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