PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the clinical factors in predicting acute renal failure (ARF) in rhabdomyolysis and investigate the potential risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT). BASIC PROCEDURES: From 2006 to 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 202 patients 65 years or younger with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase levels greater than 1000 IU/L. The related clinical factors were analyzed in the patients with ARF caused by rhabdomyolysis. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to establish the appropriate cutoff values of serum biomarkers in predicting ARF. MAIN FINDINGS: The most common causes of rhabdomyolysis were trauma (n = 54; 26.7%) and infections (n = 37; 18.3%). Of the 202 patients, 29 (14.4%) developed ARF, and RRT was indicated for 5 of these 29 patients. Predictive factors for ARF were dark urine, initial and peak serum myoglobin level, rhabdomyolysis caused by body temperature change, and an elevated serum potassium level. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best cutoff value of initial serum myoglobin level for predicting ARF was 597.5 ng/mL. Risk factors for RRT in patients with ARF were etiologies of rhabdomyolysis, peak blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and the creatinine phosphokinase level on the third day as rhabdomyolysis developed. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: Age, dark urine, etiologies, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and potassium, and initial and peak serum myoglobin levels may serve as important factors in predicting ARF in patients with rhabdomyolysis. We suggest that the appropriate cutoff value of initial serum myoglobin for predicting ARF is 600 ng/mL. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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