Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of cinacalcet hydrochloride

  • Padhi D
  • Harris R
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Abstract

Cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is a calcimimetic approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving dialysis and for the treatment of hypercalcaemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma. Following oral administration, peak plasma concentrations of cinacalcet occur within 2-6 hours. The absolute bioavailability is 20-25%, and administration of cinacalcet with low- or high-fat meals increases exposure (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC(infinity)]) 1.5- to 1.8-fold. Cinacalcet has no significant interaction with calcium carbonate or sevelamer hydrochloride, phosphate binders commonly used in the treatment of patients with CKD receiving dialysis. The terminal elimination half-life is 30-40 hours, and steady-state concentrations are achieved within 7 days. The pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet are dose proportional over the dose range of 30-180 mg. The pharmacokinetic profile of cinacalcet is not notably affected by varying degrees of renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet are comparable between healthy subjects, patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism with reduced renal function (including those patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving dialysis). Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet are similar in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving haemodialysis and patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving peritoneal dialysis. Mild hepatic impairment does not affect the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet, whereas moderate or severe hepatic impairment increases the exposure (AUC(infinity)) by approximately 2- and 4-fold, respectively. Age, sex, bodyweight and race do not notably affect the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet. Cinacalcet is extensively metabolized by multiple hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (primarily 3A4, 2D6 and 1A2) with

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Authors

  • Desmond Padhi

  • Robert Harris

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