In this article, I aim to achieve three goals: First, I willshow that sleep deprivation causes two independent negativeconsequences to cognition: a detriment and a loss of benefit;I will explain this distinction. Second, I will briefly reviewevidence supporting sleep’s benefits for cognition. Finally,I will argue that these benefits of sleep for cognition providenovel reasons why depriving residents of sleep is inconsistentwith our ethical standards and educational goals for medicaltraining. In this final section, I will also argue against theassertion that residents should use performance-enhancing medicationsto overcome the effects of sleep deprivation.
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